Works of Art

Passion for Treasures of the Past

Simone di Niccolò Bianco, attr.

Loro Ciuffenna/Arezzo ? - 1553 Venice

Idealised Portrait of a woman in profile

Venice, c. 1520/30, marble, 30 x 32,5 x 8.5 cm

Lion Aquamanile

North Germany, first half of the 14th century

Copper alloy, 28.5 x 33,5 cm

Schenck, Christoph Daniel, attr.

Constanze, Germany, 1633-1691

Saint Sebastian

Constanze, 1680, fruitwood relief with polychromy, 15.5 x 11.3 cm

MASTER I.C., prob. Jean de Court.

Limoges, 1530-1584

Ewer with Bacchanal and Procession

France, Limoges, third quarter of the 16th century, h. 27 cm

MASTER I.C., prob. Jean de Court

Limoges, 1530-1584

Ewer with Nude Horsemen

France, Limoges, third quarter of the 16th century, h. 26 cm


Italy, Florence, mid–17th century

Silver, parcel gilt, ebony, jaspis, 50 x 23 x 23 cm

‘Nativity’, Alabaster Relief

England, Nottingham, 2nd half of the 15th cent.

Alabaster, 40.5 x 26 x 3 cm

Saint Blaise

South Germany (Black Forest?), dated 1596

Fruitwood, original polychromy, h.

Saint Sebastian.

South Germany (Augsburg?), c. 1750

Fruitwood, partly original colour and gilding, h. 28 cm

Processional Cross

France or Italy, 14th cent.

Silver, gilt, enamel, h. 25 cm

Girolamo Campagna

Verona 1549 - 1625 Venice, workshop

Diana, goddess of hunt

Bronze, h. 55.5 cm, early 17th century

José Dias dos Santos, attr. to

Aveiro, Portugal, 17th century

Infant Christ reclining

Last quarter 17th, terracotta, with old polychromy and gilding, 29 x 28 cm

Hendrick van Holt, attr. to

Kalkar, Germany, c. 1520-30

Saint Sebastian

Oakwood, carved in the round, h. 115 cm


Saint Sebastian

Southern Germany, Augsburg, second half of the 17th century

According to legend, Sebastian served as a captain under the Roman emperor Diocletian. Due to his Christian faith and numerous miracles attributed to him, the emperor had him arrested. Clad only in a loincloth, he was tied to a tree and his body pierced by arrows fired by Diocletian’s soldiers. The saint is standing on

Read more

Boxwood, H. 28.6 cm

Alonso Cano, attr. to

Spain, Granada, 1660/65

Standing Christ Child

Lead, painted, wooden pedestal with gilded brass mountings, height 61.5 cm

The Head of St. John the Baptist

England, Nottingham, late 15th century

Alabaster high relief with the original partial polychromy, 25.5 x 18

Christ Crucified

Southern France, 12th century

Gilt bronze, h. 16.5 cm

David Heschler, attr. to

Memmingen 1611 - 1667 Ulm, attributed to

Christ Crucified

Boxwood, h. 29.8 cm

Giuseppe Gricci

Florence 1719 - 1771 Madrid


Naples (Italy) 1744, terracotta, modelled fully in the round, old polychromy

Madonna and Child

Franconia or Bohemia, second quarter of 14th century

Lindenwood with original paint and gilding, h. 96 cm


Bust of the Annunciation

Northern Italy (Mantua?), c. 1500

Terracotta with remains of original paint under later overpainting, h. 34,5 cm

Johann Baptist Hagenauer

Ainring near Salzburghofen (Freilassing) 1732–1810 Vienna, attributed to


Salzburg, c. 1755/60, alabaster, 25 x 28.5 x 17.5 cm, with pedestal 31.5 x 34 x 22 cm


Small Hispano-Moresque Plate

Spain (Manises), late 15th century, diameter 17 cm

Earthenware tin glazed in blue and copper lustre

Madonna and Child

Germany (Upper Rhine), c. 1500

Lindenwood with original paint and gilding, h. 27.2 cm

Francis van Bossuit

Brussels 1635–1692 Amsterdam

Bathsheba at her Bath and Lot and his Daughters

Ivory reliefs, both 16 x 19.5 cm

Christoph Daniel Schenck

Constance 1633–1691, attr. to

Joseph with Christ Child

Limewood, h. 15 cm

Severo Calzetta da Ravenna

Active in Northern Italy c. 1496–1543, circle of

Inkwell with figure of Atlas

Padua, first half of 16th century, bronze, h. 26 cm

Severo Calzetta da Ravenna

Active in Northern Italy c. 1496–1543, circle of

Kneeling Satyr

First third of 16th century, bronze, h. 20.5 cm

Loro Ciuffenna

Pittoresque birthplace

Road to life

The Via dei Sette Ponti, the ‘Road of Seven Bridges’, that leads to Arezzo 30km (18mi) away, begins in Loro Ciuffenna. The first bridge that arches the river Ciuffenna in the centre of the little town has existed since the Middle Ages. Records show that a mill was constructed there back in the 11th century. It is certainly possible that Simone di Niccolò Bianco travelled along the ‘Road of Seven Bridges’ to Venice, some 300km (186mi) away – a long distance in those days.

An important Doge

but the power of Venice

...has passed its peak

Simone di Niccolò Bianco, whose exact date of birth is unknown, was first mentioned in a document in 1521 from Venice. At this time Leonardo Loredan was the Doge of Venice. It was under his rule that the War of the League of Cambrai was fought against Venice by an alliance between King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand of Aragón and several small Italian states. Although, under Loredan, Venice did not actually lose the war and managed to keep possession of large swathes of its lands, Venice’s omnipotence was broken. By the time the Doge died, Venice’s political heyday had passed.

Elaborated hairstyles

Jewels and lemons

Honest men

The imaginative coiffure of the unknown beauty reflects the hairstyle of the Italian Renaissance that, in turn, was influenced by Antiquity. The artistically plaited braids and delicate curls are decorated with gems, ribbons and pearls. Lighter shades were very much en vogue and, if not natural, were created by bleaching in the sun or with lemon juice.
Men’s hairstyles were essentially very simple in comparison to women’s and no differentiation was made with regard to a man’s social standing.

Precious water

Pure and delicious

Fountain of life

The bronze water vessel in the form of a lion reminds us today of how precious water was and how carefully it was used in everyday life. A continuously available source in the form of pipe-fed water did not exist. Once water had been found, it was vital to check if it could be drunk. Water often had to be carried over long distances from trustworthy wells and springs to wherever it was needed. When looking at this beautiful aquamanile one can take a trip back in time in one’s mind’s eye to the early Middle Ages.

Metal artwork


Oriental technique

The prerequisite for making an aquamanile was a mastery of the lost-wax casting technique. This was a method that scarcely anyone in the west mastered at that time. The casting process is described in detail in the work Schedula diversarum artium that appeared between 1100 and 1120 and was probably written by a skilled artisan monk called Roger of Helmarshausen, better known under the pseudonym Theophilus Presbyter. The frequency of lost-wax casts in Helmarshausen in the early 12th century is especially striking. In his Schedula, Theophilus refers to the knowledge and skills of artists from the Orient.

A wonderful eagle

From Bagdad... St. Petersburg

The caliphate Baghdad was founded in 762 and, together with the port of Basra, was the centre of the blossoming artisanal metal working trade in the 8th century. A beautiful vessel in the shape of an eagle, 38cm-tall, that dates from this period, is now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. The artwork is also exceptional in that it bears an inscription referring to the year 180 H (796–797) and the name of the artist (Sulaiman). As it has not been possible to decipher the name of the place it was made, this still remains a mystery.

Virgil and the Aeneis

Entangled epic

Danger coming from the sea

In this artwork, we are referring to Laocoön: In his myth, the Aeneid (1st century BC), Virgil reports how Laocoön, a priest of Apollo, warned the Trojans about pulling the Greek’s wooden horse into their beleaguered city. He was the only one to suspect that the supposed Christmas present from the Greeks could conceal Greek warriors. Hera and Athena, who had sided with the Greeks, sent two serpents from the sea to strangle Laocoön and his two sons. The Trojans took this to be a punishment from the gods for the sacrilege of their present and dragged the wooden horse into the city, thus sealing their own fate.


Catholics and Protestants

Ignatius of Loyola

The response of the Catholic Church to the end of the Reformation initiated by Martin Luther is referred to as the Counter-Reformation. After the Council of Trent in 1545, Rome attempted to repress Protestantism by force with the support of the Catholic Habsburg emperors. The Jesuit order, founded in 1534 by Ignatius of Loyola, was at the vanguard of the Counter-Reformation. The threat of Protestantism, however, did have its positive side: the Catholic Church examined its greatest shortcomings, reformed the training of priests and regulated the benefices and indulgences that had been grossly misappropriated.

Konstanz 1633

Prince Willibald

A lucky marriage

In 1633, the year Christoph Daniel Schenck was born, Swedish troops still held on to the city of Konstanz, then in its second year, under the leadership of Field Marshal Gustav Horn. Thanks, however, to the strong defence under the command of Maximilian Willibald prince of Waldburg-Wolfegg, the enemy forces ultimately suffered considerable losses and retreated in October that year. Maximilian Willibald was an educated aesthete with wide-ranging interests. He survived the Thirty Years’ War and entered his second marriage in 1648, this time to the Flemish Duchess Clara Isabella from the House of Arenberg, who had a strong love of art.

Drink and be merry

Greek import...

in ancient Rome

The Dionysia or Bacchanalia were ecstatic festivals celebrating the god and the fertility cult, frequently heightened through alcohol or hallucinogenic fungi. Although basically adopted from Greece, the tradition of the spring festival combined Roman religious and Etruscan cultural elements. Every year, this exceptional period of festivity certainly brought many Romans great pleasure, similar in some respects to Carnival celebrations today. The ‘imported’ festival, therefore, enjoyed considerable popularity.

Present of the nature

Not always g-rated

and dangerous

Plants and mushrooms, the consumption of which induced a state of ecstasy, played an important role in furthering the development of certain religions in a number of different societies worldwide. The first indications of the use of psychoactive fungi can be found in rock drawings (c. 5000 BC) on the Tassili plateau in present-day Algeria that show deities with mushrooms. Germanic peoples, for example, consumed the fly agaric species of fungi before communicating with their ancestors and spirits. The correct dose, however, certainly played an existential role.

Precious soils


by men

Enamel is the name given to a material generally made of silicates (powdered glass) and oxides (pigments) that are applied to a substrate and melted at a high temperature over a short firing period. Over the course of the centuries, craftsmen developed a variety of different techniques and produced works of high artistic quality. The so-called émail peint technique – painted enamel – is typical of the Renaissance. Our decorative vessel is a prime example of the mastery of this process.

The Trojan War

Great heroes

Capricious faith

Ajax was one of the major heroes of the Trojan War. In the Iliad Homer describes him as a man of great stature who towered above everyone else. During the Trojan War Ajax fell in love with Princess Tecmessa who, after the violent death of her father, King Teuthras, was captured and included among the spoils of war. This union produced a son, Eurysaces, the later King of Salamis, the first of a dynastic line of rulers. Ajax did not live to experience his son’s successful reign as he committed suicide while the Trojan War was still raging.


From the bishop´s palace

to a museum of Fine Arts

A former episcopal palace from the 18th century, designed by the Brousseau brothers, now houses the treasures of Limoges Art Museum. A collection of enamel artworks dating from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, unlike any other in the world, has been assembled here. It also displays Art Deco and contemporary objects that testify to the great tradition of enamel production in this city in central France.

THe kings of France

The house of Valois

followed by Bourbon

When this beautiful jug was made, Henry III from the House of Valois was King of France and the country was in a very bad state politically due to the Wars of Religion between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots. Despite the times, the aristrocracy and the wealthy bourgeoisie greatly admired beautiful and ostentatious enamel vessels from Limoges. Limoges was more than 300km (186mi) from the court at Fontainebleau or Paris – a journey that would have taken several days. When Henry III died childless in 1589, the House of Valois became extinct.

Simon Petrus

The rock of the church

Martyrdom at Rome

The disciple Simon Peter (the ‘Rock’) came from Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. Little is known about Peter’s ministry after Jesus’ death and the Resurrection. Virtually all details about his life at that time come from the Acts of the Apostles. He ensured that the disciples of Jesus soon met again in Jerusalem to proclaim the message of the resurrection. He then travelled around Antioch and Asia Minor as a missionary, preaching especially to non-Jews. His last missionary journey took him to Rome. Tradition has it that he met St Paul there. Like Paul, Peter died a martyr’s death between 64 and 67 AD. His body is believed to have been buried on the spot where St. Peter’s Basilica now stands. Archaeological excavations beneath the basilica support this theory.

The princes glory

increased by art

The Grand-Ducal workshop

Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1519–1574) greatly contributed to the growth of the Medici art collection. He was a patron to the major artists of the time, supported artistic craftsmanship and contributed to Florence’s expanding fame. In 1588 Ferdinand I de’ Medici (1549–1609) restructured the grand-ducal court workshops in the Palazzo degli Uffizi into an autonomous, functional complex where specialist engravers, gold and silversmiths created exquisite objects of the highest artistic quality on crysal, cameos and gemstones with considerable skill and artistic creativity. Numerous works of art were sent as gifts to the princely courts of Europe with whom the Medici had established a dense network of relations – testimony to the power and influence of the Medici.

St. Peter at Rome

Where Petrus rests

bernini´s ciborium

A ciborium is a superstructure, supported by columns, over an altar. In Early Christian basilicas the ciborium marked and protected the site of the free-standing altar over the tomb of a martyr. This form of structure set a strong accent in church architecture. Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed the high altar in St. Peter’s in Rome – certainly the most famous ciborium and a model for many others. His most important patron, Pope Urban VIII, commissioned this work from the young artist. With the assistance of Borromini, Bernini made the baldachin architectural form from the bronze cladding of the beams in the vestibule of the Pantheon.

Maria´s veil...

or her golden hair?

Bridget´s view

The depiction of the Birth of Christ is in keeping with the contemporary theological pictorial tradition of the time. During her trip to the Holy Land in 1372, Bridget of Sweden had a vision in which she saw the Virgin taking off her shoes, placing her cloak next to her and removing the veil from her head, letting her golden hair fall onto her shoulders. After the birth she knelt down in front of the new-born child that was lying naked on the ground; he emitted a light that was ‘brighter than the sun’. The Son of God was not lying in swaddling clothes in a bed nor was he in a crib surrounded by straw.

A miraculous fiber

magical, but true

Byssus, the sea silk

Although not depicted here, the veil of the Virgin Mary – a type of maphorion – was long considered one of the most important reliquaries in Christendom. It was kept in the church of Saint Mary of Blachernae until the sacking of Constantinople in 1204. The veil is now to be found in basilica in Assisi. It is made of the fabulous and extremely rare byssus cloth, otherwise known as sea silk, that is won from a fibre spun by a species of pen shell native to the Mediterranean. Today, virtually all knowledge of working with byssus has been lost. There is only one weaver left in the world today who still works with sea silk, Chiara Vigo. She lives on Sardinia.

Sweet Mandorla

Divine halo

The glory of the Lord

The Christ Child is depicted naked, lying within a mandorla, on an altar-like dais. What does this signify? A mandorla, derived from the Italian for ‘almond’, is a radiant glory – a halo – surrounding a figure in its entirety. It is the visible expression of the power of salvation emanating from a divine being. Here, it surrounds the Son of God, who is holding an orb in his right hand – the symbol of God’s rule over the world. In art history, Christ is more commonly depicted within a mandorla as an adult, shown as Majestas Domini, ‘Christ in Majesty’.

Physician and bishop

Sebaste in Armenia

Emperor Licinus

Blaise lived in the second half of the 3rd century. He worked as a physician and became the bishop of Sebastea (now Sivas, Turkey) in the Roman province of Armenia. According to tradition, Blaise died a martyr’s death under the emperor Licinius; however, it is more likely that this martyrdom was at the time of the emperor Diocletian. The saint is called upon to help cure afflictions of the throat. Blessings given in the Catholic Church include, among others: “Through the intercession of St Blaise, bishop and martyr, may God deliver you from ailments of the throat and from every other evil”.

Animals friend

Cruel martydom

Suffering of innocents

According to the Legenda aurea (the Golden Legend) Blaise fled from the emperor Diocletian and hid in a cave. The animals of the forest gathered around to protect and feed him. In return, he healed sick animals and blessed them. When Saint Blaise was summoned by the prince to return to the city, he refused to renounce his faith and acknowledge the prince’s gods. As a result he suffered a extremely brutal martyrdom. Seven pious women and two small children were also killed at the same time.

The Legenda Aurea

Jacobus de Voragine

An early bestseller

The Legenda aurea was compiled around 1264 by the Dominican Jacobus de Voragine. It originally included 182 tractates, primarily biographies of saints. With this work, Jacobus, who was Archbishop of Genoa from 1292 until his death in 1298, created the best known and most widely read book of traditional lore on saints in the Middle Ages. It soon became extremely popular and documentary evidence shows that one manuscript had reached Germany by 1282. The first printed editions were published around 1470. The attributes of saints to be found in art (painting and sculpture), which assist the interpretation of religious scenes, largely originate from the Legenda aurea.

An important saint


Grace of charity

Sebastian is one of the saints most closely associated with the Plague. At the time of such epidemics as the ‘Black Death’ he was called upon to protect and heal. In the Middle Ages, a variety of fraternal orders were founded from the 12th century onwards with different aims and tasks. Sebastian was the patron saint of the Sebastian Brotherhood which provided assistance, especially during epidemics. The Plague was almost always deadly at this time and a catastrophe for society as a whole. The Sebastian brethren took the sick to hospices when the Pest raged, organised burials and helped, in particular, in the commemoration of the dead.

The Black Death

A horrible plague

Dangerous bacteria

In Europe around 25 million people died of the Plague between 1346 and 1353 – approximately one third of the overall population at that time. The Pest spread from Asia to Messina on Sicily along the trade routes, from where it gained a foothold on mainland Europe. In the Middle ages nobody knew where the Plague came from and suspected evil winds, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in an unfavorable constellation or contaminated water to be the cause. It was not until 1894 that the real cause was discovered. Today it is known that the Black Death was a bacterial contagious disease that, in the Middle Ages, was passed to humans by rats and fleas.


40 days of isolation

Protection against the plague

The word ‘quarantine’ comes from the Italian quaranta giorni, meaning ‘forty days’. In July 1377, the government of the Republic of Ragusa decreed that all travellers and merchants had to spend thirty days – later forty – in isolation, in specially built lazarets, before they could enter the city. According to another source, it was Venice that first introduced quarantine. Today, quarantine ensures that others are protected from contagious diseases – the time spent in quarantine varying according to the incubation period of the presumed infection.

Noble materials

in ecclesiastical use

Beautiful to look at

Canon law stipulates that objects for ritual use such as the chalice and paten (the shallow dish for the communion wafer), altar candlesticks and processional crosses are to be made either of precious metals such as gold and silver or of bronze or gilded metal. Since the middle of the 12th century the champlevé technique was used for the pictorial decoration of liturgical items, as is the case with our processional cross. Those looking at the cross were attracted by the bold, bright and luminous colours that formed a contrast to the gold.

The Old Testament

The New Testament

Tradition of the sacrificial lamb

Very early on, events in the Old Testament were interpreted in the biblical commentaries of the four Church Fathers as a sign of the Act of Salvation in the New Testament. This is also true of the Agnus Dei, the Lamb of God. A symbol of the sacrificial death of Christ in the New Testament, it stands in the tradition of the sacrificial animal in the Old Testament where it refers to the Passover Lamb, sacrificed the night the Israelites departed from Egypt. Depicted as the Paschal Lamb with the vexillum (pennant), as seen on our processional cross, it is a symbol of the resurrection of Christ.

The fathers of the church

egregii doctores ecclesiae

Pope Bonface VIII.

The four Great Church Fathers in the Western Church are St Augustine who was appointed Bishop of Aleppo in 394, St Gregory who became pope in 590, from when on he was known as Gregory the Great, St Jerome, the cardinal who lived as a hermit in the 4th century, and St Ambrose who became Bishop of Milan in 374. The were named egregii doctores ecclesiae – teachers of the Church – by Pope Boniface VIII in 1295.

The goddess of hunting


A popular subject

In Roman mythology Diana is the goddess of hunting and the moon as well as the protectress of young girls and women. She is the equivalent of Artemis in Greek mythology, the daughter of Zeus and Leto, the twin sister of Apollo. Diana is often shown as a young huntress in a short tunic with a quiver of arrows and a bow, sometimes with a stag. Artists have taken a number of scenes from the myths surrounding Diana/Artemis as subjects for their works. The siblings Apollo and Diana were also very popular.

The domestic fireplace

From simple andirons …

to exquisite fire-dogs

Andirons generally comprise two bracket supports on which logs are placed in a fireplace so that they are slightly raised off the ground. This improves the circulation of air significantly. Originally, andirons were simple rod-like irons or even solid blocks of metal. In the late Middle Ages and during the Renaissance in particular, pairs of fire-dogs were created out of bronze or brass and sometimes even fire-gilded. The brackets were also decorated with ornaments and figures, thus turning them into exquisite works of art.

Girolamo Campagna

Star artist in Venice

16th-century ‘must-haves’

Girolamo Campagna is considered one of the principal Venetian sculptors of the late 16th century. He ran a large workshop in the city on the lagoon and was kept busy making many works on commission. The son of a blacksmith from Verona, he moved to Venice in 1549 to study under the sculptor Danese Cattaneo. Campagna became famous in his own right and his works were much sought after. An agent of the Duke of Urbion reported that Campagna had to be handled with kid gloves if you wanted to commission a work from him.

A child as the bearer of hope

The divine infant

Conquering hearts

A child is a symbol for the future of humanity. All the more so, when the child depicted is the young Jesus – for a long time the only baby child found in Christian art history. The divine infant in the crib or on the arm of his mother, the Virgin Mary, profoundly influenced the depiction of children up until the 15th century. During the Renaissance, the impact of images from Antiquity started to show: the Christ Child became sweeter, more playful, as can be seen in this small Portuguese painting of the Cupid-like divine infant.

Princess Joanna

Princess Joanna

A paragon in Portugal

In Aveiro, the city where this picture of the sleeping Christ Child was made, as well as in the whole of Portugal, Saint Joanna of Portugal (1452–1490) is still venerated to this day. She was the daughter of the Portuguese King Alfonso V and Isabella of Portugal. Declared the heir presumptive to the throne while still in her cradle, she later lost her claim for the throne after the birth of her brother, John II. In 1475 she entered the Dominican Order in Aveiro where she died in 1490. Joanna was beatified in 1693 by Pope Innocent XII.

The Venice of Portugal

Exploring the canals

Moliceiros – the canal boats

Aveiro is called the ‘Venice of Portugal’ due to its many canals. Colourful moliceiros ply the waters and give the city its own unique charm. The three major canals are the Canal Central (Canal de São Roque), the Canal das Pirâmides and the Canal dos Santos Mârtires.

Duchy of Cleves

Kalkar: one of its ‘capital cities’

Political upheaval

During Hendrick van Holst’s lifetime Kalkar was one of the seven ‘capitals’ of the Duchy of Cleves. Cleves, a territory within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, can look back at a long history: in 1020 it was given the status of a county and in 1417 it became a duchy. The ruler’s seat was Schwanenburg and – for a time – Monterberg Castle near Kalkar. Following an inheritance dispute it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1614.

Kalkar and Wesel

Part of the Hanseatic League

Joining forces

By 1540 Kalkar had joined the Hanseatic League as a town affiliated to Wesel in order to improve its economic potential. The Hanseatic League, a confederation of merchant guilds from northern Gemany, opened up new trading possibilities to its members’ towns which were granted special privileges. The residents of Kalkar at that time not only benefitted from a healthy commercial climate but their own needs were also well catered for: the town, with a population of less than 5000, had 42 breweries! Kalkar’s membership in the Hanseatic League ended in 1618.

Christian Sgrothen

Surveyor of the world

Court cartographer to Philip II

Christian Sgrothen was born in Sonsbeck in 1525, the son of the town clerk Peter Sgrothen. He worked as a painter and cartographer in Kalkar where he was granted citizenship of the town in 1548. From 1557 onwards he was in the service of King Philip II of Spain, as the court cartographer, for whom he surveyed northwest Germany, among other regions, and drew maps of Geldern-Zutphen, Westphalia, Jülich-Cleves-Mark and Luxembourg as well. Sgrothen’s cartographic work was the most important of the Lower Rhine area in the 16th century. The polymath died in Kalkar in 1604.

Peace festival

First celebrated in 1650

Held every year in Augsburg on 8 August

In 1650 the Protestants of Augsburg held the first ‘Augsburger Hohes Friedensfest’ to commemorate 8 August 1629. It was on that date that they had been forbidden from practising their faith, contrary to the terms of the treaty made in 1555 between Ferdinand I and the Imperial Estates at the Imperial Diet in Augsburg. This festival, meanwhile open to all faiths, is still held every year on that date – and is a public holiday exclusively in the municipal area of Augsburg.

August Sturm

A Catholic newspaper

in Protestant Augsburg

In 1686 the book printer August Sturm from Nördlingen launched a Catholic-orientated weekly newspaper in predominantly Protestant Augsburg. The ‘Augspurgische Ordinari-Post-Zeitung’ was the counterpart to a Protestant weekly of almost identical name, the ‘Wochentlich-Ordinari-Post-Zeitung’, published by Jakob Koppmayer. After being taken over by Joseph Anton Moy in 1766, it evolved into the leading newspaper in southern Germany and Austria, having a circulation of 12,000 copies in the early 19th century.

Devotional objects

Pictures of saints

Prayer aids

Figures such as our Saint Sebastian served to heighten religious veneration and are commonly known as devotional objects. This term has its roots in the Latin word devotio, meaning ‘reverence’ or ‘surrender’. Devotional objects include all those items used in private prayer such as crucifixes and rosaries. Sebastain, the protector of Plague victims and epidemics, was always one of the most popular saints.

Alonso Cano

Painter, sculptor and architect

The ‘Escuela granadina de pintura’

The artist, who worked as a painter, sculptor and architect, is considered the founder of the ‘Escuela granadina de pintura’, the Granada School of painting. At the age of twenty-four, Cano was already the supervisor of all royal buildings and court painter to Philip IV in Madrid. Cano never travelled to Italy but taught himself the styles used in antiquity and transferred these to his paintings that were solely of religious subjects.


Brothers in faith

To protect the "holy of holies"

Confraternities of the Blessed Sacrament, organised Christian communities of men who call each other ‘brothers’, were increasingly founded from the Middle Ages onwards. Among the original duties of a confraternity was the protection of the ‘holy of holies’ during processions through the streets of a city. Confraternities also had their own ecclesiastical rights regarding the celebration of mass. They also aided pilgrims, foreigners and anyone vulnerable or sick and maintained their own hospices and hospitals. The Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament in Sevilla belongs to the church of El Salvador.

The "Semana Santa" in Sevilla


Showing of the Christ Child

It is possible that this small figure of the Christ Child was shown in processions during the Semana Santa – Holy Week, from Palm Sunday until Good Friday – in Sevilla. The beginning and end of each procession is always in the district in which the confraternity (or brotherhood) is based. The entrada, the entance of the confraternity in the candle-lit church after the procession, is a special highlight.

Henry VII

The Tudor period

England’s heyday

The Tudor era is the period between 1485 and 1603. The first monarch of the House of Tudor was Henry VII. He inherited a country weakened by the Black Death and famine, with a population of only two million. Henry’s politics, focussed on freedom and economic prosperity, were successful. England became extremely powerful both economically and with regard to foreign affairs. Around 1600,  the population had risen to four million.


The art of applying

Cennino Cennini

The artist of this alabaster relief carefully added paint later, as can be seen in the remnants of gold, red and black pigment. The art of applying paint was, at that time, a science in its own right that played a major role in the field of painting itself, in particular. The work Libro dell’arte o trattato della pittura, written by Cennino Cennini around 1400, was especially well known. This manual, initially available in the form of a transcript, later became the most influential textbook on painting in the Middle Ages.

The Divine Trinity

The Holy Spirit

A white dove

In Christianity, the Holy Spirit is one of the three persons of the Trinity. It is often represented by the dove, fire or wind in art. The Holy Spirit is said to have descended to Jesus in the form of a dove during his baptism in the Jordan. In the first few centuries after the death of Christ, artists struggled to find a way to depict the invisible Holy Spirit. They ultimately chose the dove as a symbol, thus continuing the pictorial tradition established in Antiquity of a bird standing for gentleness and love: it was believed that the dove did not have a gall bladder and was, therefore, free from all things bitter and evil.

The discovery

A journey to the Holy Land

The secret of the Venus temple

The alleged discovery of the cross by Empress Helena was first recorded in the 4th century. According to this legend Helena (248/50–329), the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine, travelled to the Holy Land around 325AD and ordered excavations to be made on the site of a Roman temple dedicated to Venus. Remains of the cross upon which Christ was crucified as well as the tomb in which Christ was buried were found. Helena had the cross divided into three and consigned these remnants to Jerusalem, Constantiople and Rome. Helena and her son, Emperor Constantine, commissioned a basilica – the so-called Church of the Holy Sepulchre (consecrated in 335) – to be built over the tomb and the site where the cross was found. It constitutes one of the holiest sites in Christianity.

The cross

Evolution of a symbol

Its meaning today

In early Christianity, the original symbol was not the cross but the Christogram XP. It was not until the 5th century that this became less well used and the cross emerged as the most important symbol in Christianity. Evidence of the wooden cross commonly found today being used as a symbol can be found in the 4th century during the reign of Emperor Constantine (between 270 and 288–337).

The image of Christ

Powerful King

A crown instead of thorns

In the Romanesque period, the crucified figure of Christ appears as a sovereign and judge. Instead of a Crown of Thorns he wears a royal crown or is depicted with a halo. The Son of God, as the victor over death, is shown with his feet parallel to one another (the so-called ‘four-nail’ style) and not crossed. The loincloth is greatly stylised and falls in artistically draped folds.
The subject of suffering gained greater significance in the Gothic era. Christ embodied the suffering of the world, and the martyrdom of the Son of God was of cental importance. This found its artistic heyday in the Baroque period.

Memmingen 1611

The pest

Terror of the plague

In the year the artist was born, Memmingen was once again stricken by the Plague. Described as ‘the Great Death’ it was certainly one of the most devastating epidemics in the town’s history. In his chronicle, Jacob Friedrich Unold wrote: “The Pest took the lives of several hundred people yet again … Stage and strings fell silent and, in God’s name, the sickhouse and the hospital opened their doors as did a house for the dead and a house for the healthy … No one wanted to let the people of Memmingen in and when they went to Mindelheim or Landsberg to buy salt, their money was washed.”

Boxwood as raw material

In sculpture...

...and in the art of the garden

Joachim von Sandrart the Elder (1606 Frankfurt am Main–1688 Nuremberg) was a German painter, copperplate engraver, art historian and translator. His principal art theorical and art historical work, Teutsche Academie der Edlen Bau-, Bild- und Mahlerey-Künste (German Academy of the Noble Arts of Architecture, Sculpture and Painting) was published in several parts between 1675 and 1679. It is considered the first theoretical writing on art in German. Sandrart’s translation of Vincenzo Cartari’s Le imagini collasposizione degli dei degli antichi (Images depicting the gods of the ancients) that appeared in 1680, represents a second art historical treatise of epochal importance.

Joachim von Sandrart the Elder

A German all-rounder

The beginnings of art history

Joachim von Sandrart the Elder (1606 Frankfurt am Main–1688 Nuremberg) was a German painter, copperplate engraver, art historian and translator. His principal art theorical and art historical work, Teutsche Academie der Edlen Bau-, Bild- und Mahlerey-Künste (German Academy of the Noble Arts of Architecture, Sculpture and Painting) was published in several parts between 1675 and 1679. It is considered the first theoretical writing on art in German. Sandrart’s translation of Vincenzo Cartari’s Le imagini collasposizione degli dei degli antichi (Images depicting the gods of the ancients) that appeared in 1680, represents a second art historical treatise of epochal importance.


´Baked earth´

Ceramic arts

Terracotta actually means ‘baked earth’ and is used to describe a frequently unglazed type of ceramic product. Unlike other ceramics, terracotta only needs one firing. In antiquity, terracotta experienced its first major heyday during the Minoan civilization on Crete some 2000 years BC. It gained popularity later in Greece and during the Italian Renaissance, especially in the workshop of Luca della Robbia.

The ´white gold´

Alchemy at Dresden

Porcelain of Meissen

Maria Amalia of Saxony (1724–60), the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Poland and Elector of Saxony, married Charles, King of Naples and Sicily, later Charles III of Spain (1716–88). The founding of Capodimonte is certainly related to this marriage as the manufactory in Meissen, founded by her grandfather, had existed since 1710. Giovanni Caselli was appointed master decorator and his brother-in-law, Giuseppe Gricci, sculptor and modeller. Following the coronation of Charles as King of Spain in 1759, the whole manufactory moved to Buen Retiro near Madrid, together with the employees and the production facilities. The blue ‘under-glass’ Bourbon line became a distinguished brand.

Dresden and Naples

Porcelain of Capodimonte

A royal brand

Porcelain was originally a luxury article that was only available in the form of imported Chinese wares. It was not until 1710 that Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708) and Johann Friedrich Böttger (1682–1719) succeeded in manufacturing hard-paste porcelain – often referred to as ‘white gold’. The manufacturing process could not be kept secret and almost sixty manufactories were established in Europe in the 18th century. These were exclusively owned by reigning monarchs and were inextricably linked to them. On the one hand, the production that was often housed within a palace complex, was a source of income; on the other hand it served to provide the court with luxury articles.


Elisabeth of Bohemia

An imminent changeover of power in Prague

The Přemyslids have ruled Bohemia since the late 9th century. The last Přemyslid is Elisabeth who marries John of Luxembourg in Speyer in 1310. When she dies in 1330 the dynasty becomes extinct. Queen Elisabeth’s final resting place is in the family tomb in Zbraslav Abbey in Prague


Bohemia Flourishes

The ‘Rome of the North’

When our Madonna and Child figure was created a new formal artistic language, the so-called ‘Soft Style’ – also known as International Gothic – was spreading across Europe. Typical stylistic elements in sculpture include an increasing three-dimensionality and the graceful and delightfully executed faces of the Madonna. How does such a development evolve? One reason was the appointment of Charles IV from the House of Luxembourg as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles grew up at court in Louvre Palace in Paris as a highly sophisticated young man. In 1364 the extremely polyglot Luxembourger, who spoke French, Italian, German and Czech, is elected Holy Roman Emperor. The seat of power is Prague. The emperor aims at turning the capital of Bohemia into the centre of art in Central Europe. From this time onwards, famous artists take the major west-east trading routes to Bohemia. Cities and whole regions that lie along these routes benefit from the artistic and cultural interchange. A formal artistic language takes shape and the style becomes more international.

15th century

The Golden Road

Mobility in the Middle Ages

For Emperor Charles IV a link between his Bohemian territories and his homeland in Luxembourg via the imperial cities of Nuremberg and Frankfurt is paramount. Ever since the 13th century the so-called Golden Road has served as the most important trading route between Nuremberg and Prague. Charles IV extends the existing route as far as Luxembourg and declares it an Imperial Road. Incidentally, the stone bridges in Frankfurt (1276) and Regensburg (1135) that enable the rivers Main and Danube to be crossed play a decisive role and attract merchants to these cities.


Rise of a Centre of Learning

Emperor Charles IV attracts thinkers to Prague

Thanks to the bull of Pope Clement VI and the charter drawn up by Charles, King of Bohemia, Carl University in Prague is founded, the oldest university in Central Europe. Modelled on the University of Paris it is divided into four faculties – theology, law, medicine and philosophy.


The Annunciation as a Picture Genre

A young woman is promised great things

In St. Luke’s Gospel it is written that Mary is told of the birth of her son by an angel: “Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee […] And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David.” On hearing this promise Mary may well have been afraid of the expectations placed on her; in paintings and sculptures of this scene depictions of the beautiful, young Mary often show her surprised by this news as well as fearful – which is more than understandable. Our bust of the Virgin Mary was probably once an Annunciation figure.

Around 1500

Isabella d’Este

Mistress of the ‘Court of Muses’ in Mantua

We date this bust of the Virgin Mary to around 1500 and believe it was made in Mantua where Isabella d’Este (1474–1539), the wife of Gianfrancesco II Gonzaga, entertains a ‘court of muses’ of the highest order. The most famous artists of the day, in particular Andrea Mantegna, furnish the palace of the ruling family with their work. The Marchesa – who, as highly educated, clever and beautiful, embodies the ideal female of the Renaissance – is politically extremely adept as well and exerts a strong influence.


The Mother of God and her Son

The greatest love – the most profound pain

A pietà is a depiction of the Virgin Mary as the Mother of Sorrows (Mater Dolorosa), cradling the body of her son in her lap after he had been taken down from the cross. This pictorial tradition emerged in the Middle Ages when there was an intense interest in Christ’s suffering on the cross and the Virgin Mary mourning her son. Through such emotional proximity, the devout strove to identify more closely with the notion of salvation. Pietàs can be found in most Catholic churches. The scene forms the second to last station along the Way of the Cross. The pietà is also known as a Vesperbild in German (lit.: an image venerated at vespers), based on the assumption that the Virgin held the body of Christ on Good Friday roughly at the time evening prayers are said.


Johann Baptist Hagenauer

A fortunate artist

Johann Baptist Hagenauer is considered one of the most important sculptors of his day. He was born in 1732 in Ainring near Freilassing that came under the Prince-Bishopric of Salzburg. He is artistically extremely talented and soon finds recognition. His uncle Lorenz Hagenauer and the Archbishop of Salzburg, Count Sigismund Schrattenbach provide for him to study at the Royal Academy in Vienna. Schrattenbach also finances a journey to Italy with periods of study in Rome and Florence. After his return, Fortune smiles down on him both with regard to his artistic career and his private happiness. Archbishop Count Sigismund Schrattenbach raises him to the position of Archiepiscopal Gallery Inspector and, in 1764, Hagenauer marries Maria Rosa Barducci. The Italian beauty comes from an artistic family and is herself an artist. She is Hagenauer’s favourite model and the inspiration for the statue of the Virgin Mary on the cathedral square in Salzburg, as well as for numerous other works.


Maria Theresa of Habsburg

A powerful woman

Emperor Charles VI changes the line of succession. A king’s daughters are also permitted to rule from now on should the Habsburg Monarchy have no male heir to the throne. After his death, his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, succeeds him. The houses of Wittelsbach, Saxony, Prussia and France, however fight this reform. After eight years, the Austrian War of Succession ends in 1748 in a victory for Maria Theresa, a great admirer of Johann Baptist Hagenauer’s skill as a sculptor, to which the above mentioned quotation by her imperial majesty testifies.


1001 Nights in Granada

As beautiful as in paradise

Our plate dates from the culture of the Moors who ruled large swathes of the Iberian peninsula and North Africa for several centuries. The Moorish emirate during the Nasrid dynasty is famous for its artistic and architectural masterpieces. Members of the ruling dynasty included Mohammed V (1338–1391) who had the so-called Courtyard of the Lions, with its surrounding gallery supported on columns, erected in the fortress palace, the Alhambra, in Granada. Under this emir Granada advanced into a centre of Islamic culture in western Europe.


In the Mediterranean

Majolica is an island

For the Spanish, the island was known as Mallorca, but the Italians called it Majolica in the Middle Ages. And this is the word used in Italy to describe the hugely popular Moorish ceramics, finished with a lustre glaze, that were exported from Spain via Mallorca. When the Italians learnt how to master the tin-glazing technique and underglaze painting applied on top of this, the name of these exported articles was transferred to their own product.

12th Century

Knowledge in the Middle Ages

‘Delights’ for the mind

Herrad of Hohenburg (1125/1130–1195) was abbess at Hohenburg Abbey on Mont Sainte-Odile in Alsace. She wrote the important encyclopedia, the Hortus delicarum (Garden of Delights), that encompasses the theological and secular knowledge of the High Middle Ages. It also includes the oldest known pictorial depiction of a Madonna on the Crescent Moon.


Birth of a Genius

The inventor of book printing

Johannes Gensfleisch, called Gutenberg (c. 1400–1468), is born in Mainz. Around 1450, the printing press he invents, combined with movable type, replaces the work-intensive and time-consuming methods used in book production up until then. The mechanical mass production of books is now possible for the first time. The ‘Gutenberg Bible’ that is printed between 1452 and 1454 is considered Gutenberg’s most important work. Another form of printing that is also developed in the 15th century is coppperplate engraving. This was primarily used for illustrated works. Our Madonna is the product of this invention, being a copperplate engraving by Master E.S.


Francis van Bossuit

The first artist’s monograph in the history of art

In 1727, long before Raphael, Michelangelo or Bernini, Francis van Bossuit, who died in 1692 in Amsterdam, is honoured by the publication a monograph on his work that has preserved his name for posterity. Based on drawings of many of van Bossuit’s works made by Barend Graat (1628–1700), the sculptor’s son-in-law Mattijs Pool (1676–1740) creates copperplate engravings and publishes these under the title Cabinet de l’Art de Sculpture par le Fameux Sculpteur Francis van Bossuit. This novel type of publication is very successful as van Bossuit’s work is held in high esteem in the late 17th and early 18th centuries in the Netherlands.

17th century

Emperor Philip IV

The ‘King of the World’

When Francis van Bossuit is born in Brussels in 1635, Philip IV of Spain, called ‘The Great’ or ‘King of the World’, rules over the Burgundian Netherlands. He is considered the last Spanish sovereign to rule on the basis of Great Power politics. Philip IV himself dabbles in painting and poetry, promotes the arts and appoints Diego Velasquez – who paints frequent portraits of the monarch – as court painter.

White Gold

A material long used uncritically

Its rarity and long, dangerous transport routes makes ivory an extremely precious material; its value is considered to be on a par with gold. Until the late 18th century ivory is used to make religious and secular works of art of the highest quality. This situation only changes after the colonialisation of the African continent and India, as well as through advances in hunting techniques. At the end of the 19th century more than 800 tons of ivory reach Europe; the material is used excessively and the very existence of the elephant is under threat.


The World in Chaos

Birth in Constance

In 1633, in the middle of the Hundred Years’ War, Christoph Daniel Schenck first sees the light of the world in Constance. That same year Swedish troops unsuccessfully beleaguer the city. Constance is spared – luckily for the future artist.


‘L’Etat c’est moi’

Louis XIV becomes King of France

While the Hundred Years’ War is raging in Christoph Daniel Schenck’s homeland, Louis XIV ascends to the throne of France at the age of four. Under him, France expands its position as a great power. The Sun King furthers the arts and sciences. The culture at the French Court radiates beyond its borders and becomes the model for all royal courts during the Baroque period.


Parents and Child

Is love self-evident?

In his seminal work Centuries of Childhood that was first published in English in 1962, the French sociologist Philippe Ariès argues that a loving interaction between parents and children is not something than is inborn in any way but the result of a ‘culture of emotion’ that first evolved in the 16th and 17th centuries. Ariès also draws on images in the visual arts and highlights changes. Time-wise, the so touching depiction of Joseph and the Christ Child fits perfectly and testifies impressively to Ariès’ thesis.

Around 1500

Pietro Bembo

A great art collector

The famous humanist scholar and cardinal Pietro Bembo (1470 Venice–1547 Rome) also spent a few years in Padua. His residence was furnished with exquisite works of art, antiques, books and manuscripts. The magnificent inkstand, a prestigious object of its day as well as being highly practical, could well have graced his desk.


Tactical Peace Agreement

Gefahr durch Sultan Suleyman

Die Zeiten, in denen das Tintenzeug einen Sammler erfreut, sind politisch äußerst instabil: Kaiser Karl schließt mit dem französischen König Ludwig XII. und Papst Clemens VII. in Cambrai einen Friedensvertrag, der die Italienischen Kriege (1494-1559), unter denen so viele Menschen leiden, unterbricht Der Grund: Sultan Süleyman der Prächtige belagert mit seinen Truppen Wien, die Hauptstadt der Habsburgischen Erblande. Das christliche Abendland ist bedroht.


Nicolaus Copernicus

The heliocentric world view

In 1543, the year Severo Calzetta da Ravenna dies, Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his theory on the universe based on the assumption that the planets move around the sun. It is in complete contrast to the geocentric view of the world which regards the earth as the centre of the universe. When first published, the heliocentric theory of the world was rejected by many people, both Catholics and Protestants.

467 BV

Tragic poetry in Athens


Pratinas of Phlius (d. probably 467 BC in Pratinas), one of the earliest tragic poets in Athens, is considered to be the father of the satyr play. It is a form of comedy in which fantastic and bawdy topics dictate the plot. Satyrs – mythological figures, half man, half animal – gathered around the god Dionysos, are at the centre of the action. The popular satyr play provided a contrast to tragedy and served to amuse and entertain the people of Athens. The satyr accompanied the Greeks in everyday life in antiquity as testified by the satyr playing the aulos (a wind instrument) that the Attic vase painter Epiktetos (520–500 BC) chose as a motif.



A material used by artists

Bronze was already used to create artworks in antiquity.
This alloy of copper and tin is poured into a mould. After cooling, the artist polishes the surface or continues working on the figure. Durability, the beauty of its patina and the metal’s high value are some of the reasons for its popularity. Unfortunately the recyclability of the material is a great disadvantage as many wonderful bronze figures were taken in times of war to make cannons. Others have been melted down to cast new figures with the metal as well


Ancient Greece

Lost in the course of time

The art of Ancient Greece was a great inspiration in the Renaissance. However, Attica and the Aegean Islands had to change sides, politically, at this time. Following the Sack of Constantinople in 1453 by the Ottomans, large swathes of the Greek-speaking area then belonged to the Sultan’s realm. Even the naval power Venice did little to hold the conquerors at bay and gradually lost its position of supremacy in the Mediterranean.