Kammer bei Otting, Chiemgau 1651-1732 Dresden, attr. to
A Pilgrim as a Memento Mori Florence, c. 1685, boxwood, h. 38 cm IMAGES Dossier Hendrick van Holt, attr. to
Kalkar, Germany, c.1520-30
Saint Sebastian Oakwood, carved in the round IMAGES Dossier Girolamo Campagna
Verona 1549 - 1625 Venice, workshop
Diana, goddess of hunt Early 17th century, bronze, h. 55.5 cm IMAGES Dossier A Pair of Reliefs with the Annunciation
Southern Netherlands c. 1410/20
Alabaster, with traces of the old polychromy and gilding 28 x 28 cm IMAGES Dossier Madonna and Child
Franconia or Bohemia, second quarter of 14th century Lindenwood with original paint and gilding, h. 96 cm IMAGES Dossier Johann Baptist Hagenauer
Ainring near Salzburghofen (Freilassing) 1732–1810 Vienna, attributed to
Pieta Salzburg, c. 1755/60, alabaster, 25 x 28.5 x 17.5 cm, with pedestal 31.5 x 34 x 22 cm IMAGES Dossier Johann Christoph Lücke
Probably Dresden c. 1705–1780 Danzig
Frederick V, King of Denmark and Norway Conquers Envy Copenhagen, c. 1752–54, ivory, h. 26 cm IMAGES Dossier ART DEALERS WITH PASSION IN THE FIFTH GENERATION
Since its foundation in 1880, the name Julius Böhler has stood for works of art of the highest quality. As an art dealer in the fifth generation, Florian Eitle-Böhler has close contact to major international as well as private collections. As an experienced connoisseur he would be pleased to advise you on the purchase and sale of exceptional works of art.
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Kalkar: one of its ‘capital cities’
During Hendrick van Holst’s lifetime Kalkar was one of the seven ‘capitals’ of the Duchy of Cleves. Cleves, a territory within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, can look back at a long history: in 1020 it was given the status of a county and in 1417 it became a duchy. The ruler’s seat was Schwanenburg and – for a time – Monterberg Castle near Kalkar. Following an inheritance dispute it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1614.
Part of the Hanseatic League
By 1540 Kalkar had joined the Hanseatic League as a town affiliated to Wesel in order to improve its economic potential. The Hanseatic League, a confederation of merchant guilds from northern Gemany, opened up new trading possibilities to its members’ towns which were granted special privileges. The residents of Kalkar at that time not only benefitted from a healthy commercial climate but their own needs were also well catered for: the town, with a population of less than 5000, had 42 breweries! Kalkar’s membership in the Hanseatic League ended in 1618.
Court cartographer to Philip II
Christian Sgrothen was born in Sonsbeck in 1525, the son of the town clerk Peter Sgrothen. He worked as a painter and cartographer in Kalkar where he was granted citizenship of the town in 1548. From 1557 onwards he was in the service of King Philip II of Spain, as the court cartographer, for whom he surveyed northwest Germany, among other regions, and drew maps of Geldern-Zutphen, Westphalia, Jülich-Cleves-Mark and Luxembourg as well. Sgrothen’s cartographic work was the most important of the Lower Rhine area in the 16
th century. The polymath died in Kalkar in 1604.
In Roman mythology Diana is the goddess of hunting and the moon as well as the protectress of young girls and women. She is the equivalent of Artemis in Greek mythology, the daughter of Zeus and Leto, the twin sister of Apollo. Diana is often shown as a young huntress in a short tunic with a quiver of arrows and a bow, sometimes with a stag. Artists have taken a number of scenes from the myths surrounding Diana/Artemis as subjects for their works. The siblings Apollo and Diana were also very popular.
Andirons generally comprise two bracket supports on which logs are placed in a fireplace so that they are slightly raised off the ground. This improves the circulation of air significantly. Originally, andirons were simple rod-like irons or even solid blocks of metal. In the late Middle Ages and during the Renaissance in particular, pairs of fire-dogs were created out of bronze or brass and sometimes even fire-gilded. The brackets were also decorated with ornaments and figures, thus turning them into exquisite works of art.
Girolamo Campagna is considered one of the principal Venetian sculptors of the late 16
th century. He ran a large workshop in the city on the lagoon and was kept busy making many works on commission. The son of a blacksmith from Verona, he moved to Venice in 1549 to study under the sculptor Danese Cattaneo. Campagna became famous in his own right and his works were much sought after. An agent of the Duke of Urbion reported that Campagna had to be handled with kid gloves if you wanted to commission a work from him.
These two elaborately carved reliefs were created at around the same time as the Limbourg brothers’ ‘Très riches heures du Duc de Berry’ (1413–16, Musée Condé, Chantilly) – the most famous illuminated manuscript of the period. The book of hours made for the Duke of Berry is a unique monumental work that combines stylistic influences from the Low Countries, Burgundy and Italy. The magnificent, full-leaf illustrations of the months capture the life of the farmers and the nobility. Today they are admired for the precise beauty of their detailing and provide an insight into the everyday life of a long-lost era.
The quatrefoil is an ornamental design from the Romanesque and Gothic periods, traditionally found in architecture, either embedded in masonry or in tracery work in stained glass windows as well as in sculpture. It generally comprises four circular arcs of the same radii inscribed within a circle. Variations on this form emerged in the Late Gothic period. These two reliefs of the Annunciation, for example, are within a barbed quatrefoil – a horizontal quatrefoil with the points of a square. It is possible that these reliefs were embedded in the wall of a private chapel.
Always from the left side
Why does the angel always approach the Virgin Mary from the left?
In works showing the Annunciation, the angel always approaches the Virgin Mary from the left. This is based on the direction things are read in the western world that also applied to pictorial depictions. Generally speaking, the protagonists in medieval works of art enter from this direction. During this period there are few deviations from this rule. Master painters and sculptors at later times adhered to this ancient pictorial tradition almost without exception too, with the angel approaching the Virgin Mary from the left.
An imminent changeover of power in Prague
The Přemyslids have ruled Bohemia since the late 9th century. The last Přemyslid is Elisabeth who marries John of Luxembourg in Speyer in 1310. When she dies in 1330 the dynasty becomes extinct. Queen Elisabeth’s final resting place is in the family tomb in Zbraslav Abbey in Prague
When our Madonna and Child figure was created a new formal artistic language, the so-called ‘Soft Style’ – also known as International Gothic – was spreading across Europe. Typical stylistic elements in sculpture include an increasing three-dimensionality and the graceful and delightfully executed faces of the Madonna. How does such a development evolve? One reason was the appointment of Charles IV from the House of Luxembourg as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles grew up at court in Louvre Palace in Paris as a highly sophisticated young man. In 1364 the extremely polyglot Luxembourger, who spoke French, Italian, German and Czech, is elected Holy Roman Emperor. The seat of power is Prague. The emperor aims at turning the capital of Bohemia into the centre of art in Central Europe. From this time onwards, famous artists take the major west-east trading routes to Bohemia. Cities and whole regions that lie along these routes benefit from the artistic and cultural interchange. A formal artistic language takes shape and the style becomes more international.
Mobility in the Middle Ages
For Emperor Charles IV a link between his Bohemian territories and his homeland in Luxembourg via the imperial cities of Nuremberg and Frankfurt is paramount. Ever since the 13th century the so-called Golden Road has served as the most important trading route between Nuremberg and Prague. Charles IV extends the existing route as far as Luxembourg and declares it an Imperial Road. Incidentally, the stone bridges in Frankfurt (1276) and Regensburg (1135) that enable the rivers Main and Danube to be crossed play a decisive role and attract merchants to these cities.
Rise of a Centre of Learning
Emperor Charles IV attracts thinkers to Prague
Thanks to the bull of Pope Clement VI and the charter drawn up by Charles, King of Bohemia, Carl University in Prague is founded, the oldest university in Central Europe. Modelled on the University of Paris it is divided into four faculties – theology, law, medicine and philosophy.
The Mother of God and her Son
The greatest love – the most profound pain
A pietà is a depiction of the Virgin Mary as the Mother of Sorrows (Mater Dolorosa), cradling the body of her son in her lap after he had been taken down from the cross. This pictorial tradition emerged in the Middle Ages when there was an intense interest in Christ’s suffering on the cross and the Virgin Mary mourning her son. Through such emotional proximity, the devout strove to identify more closely with the notion of salvation. Pietàs can be found in most Catholic churches. The scene forms the second to last station along the Way of the Cross. The pietà is also known as a Vesperbild in German (lit.: an image venerated at vespers), based on the assumption that the Virgin held the body of Christ on Good Friday roughly at the time evening prayers are said.
Johann Baptist Hagenauer is considered one of the most important sculptors of his day. He was born in 1732 in Ainring near Freilassing that came under the Prince-Bishopric of Salzburg. He is artistically extremely talented and soon finds recognition. His uncle Lorenz Hagenauer and the Archbishop of Salzburg, Count Sigismund Schrattenbach provide for him to study at the Royal Academy in Vienna. Schrattenbach also finances a journey to Italy with periods of study in Rome and Florence. After his return, Fortune smiles down on him both with regard to his artistic career and his private happiness. Archbishop Count Sigismund Schrattenbach raises him to the position of Archiepiscopal Gallery Inspector and, in 1764, Hagenauer marries Maria Rosa Barducci. The Italian beauty comes from an artistic family and is herself an artist. She is Hagenauer’s favourite model and the inspiration for the statue of the Virgin Mary on the cathedral square in Salzburg, as well as for numerous other works.
Maria Theresa of Habsburg
Emperor Charles VI changes the line of succession. A king’s daughters are also permitted to rule from now on should the Habsburg Monarchy have no male heir to the throne. After his death, his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, succeeds him. The houses of Wittelsbach, Saxony, Prussia and France, however fight this reform. After eight years, the Austrian War of Succession ends in 1748 in a victory for Maria Theresa, a great admirer of Johann Baptist Hagenauer’s skill as a sculptor, to which the above mentioned quotation by her imperial majesty testifies.
The Little Ice Age (1500–1850) was at its most extreme in the mid 18th century. Artists such as Francesco Foschi were enraptured by the beauty of winter and captured it in picturesque landscape paintings. Johann Christoph Ludwig von Lücke may well also have been inspired by winter.
In 1746 Frederick V was anointed king of Denmark and Norway in the chapel at Frederiksborg Castle. The coats of arms of bearers of the Order of the Dannebrog can still be seen along the gallery today.
The Kingdom of Denmark occupied a much greater area in 1750 than today as it had included the Kingdom of Norway since 1380 as well. After the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark had to cede Norway to the Swedish crown in 1814 at the Peace of Kiel.